Monday, September 30, 2019
Explain Each of the Terms: Speech, Language, Communication and Speech Language and Communication Needs. Explain each of the terms speech, language, communication, speech, language and communication needs. EYMP5 (1. 1) The dictionary explanation of speech is Ã¢â¬Å"The expression of or the ability to express thoughts and feelings by articulate soundsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"A personÃ¢â¬â¢s style of speakingÃ¢â¬ To speak is to physically be able to produce the individual sounds and sound patterns of our language, or articulate, to be able to produce speech with appropriate rhythm, and free of stuttering behaviour, and to produce speech with an appropriate vocal quality for age and sex. While speech involves the physical motor ability to talk, language is a symbolic, rule governed system used to convey a message. In English, the symbols can be words, either spoken or written. We also have gestural symbols, like shrugging our shoulders to indicate Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬ or waving to indicate Ã¢â¬Å"Bye ByeÃ¢â¬ or the raising of our eye brows to show that we are surprised by something. Language can be defined as being made up of socially shared rules that include the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢What words mean (e. g. , Ã¢â¬Å"starÃ¢â¬ can refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity) Ã¢â¬ ¢How to make new words (e. g. , friend, friendly, unfriendly) Ã¢â¬ ¢How to put words together (e. g. , Ã¢â¬Å"Peg walked to the new storeÃ¢â¬ rather than Ã¢â¬Å"Peg walk store newÃ¢â¬ ) What word combinations are best in what situations (Ã¢â¬Å"Would you mind moving your foot? could quickly change to Ã¢â¬Å"Get off my foot, please! Ã¢â¬ if the first request did not produce results) You can have language without having speech. Though speech and language are related, you do not have to have speech to have a language. How? The best example of this is the use of Sign Language. Communication is the process of conveying a message or meaning to establish a shared understanding to others. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need speech or a shared language to communicate. How? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say you decide on a trip to Rome, but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak one word of Italian. You get off your plane, and you want to pick up yourÃ¢â¬ ¦ [continues]
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Still unnerved from her encounter with Hale, Susan gazed out through the one-way glass of Node 3. The Crypto floor was empty. Hale was silent again, engrossed. She wished he would leave. She wondered if she should call Strathmore; the commander could simply kick Hale out-after all, it was Saturday. Susan knew, however, that if Hale got kicked out, he would immediately become suspicious. Once dismissed, he probably would start calling other cryptographers asking what they thought was going on. Susan decided it was better just to let Hale be. He would leave on his own soon enough. An unbreakable algorithm. She sighed, her thoughts returning to Digital Fortress. It amazed her that an algorithm like that could really be created-then again, the proof was right there in front of her; TRANSLTR appeared useless against it. Susan thought of Strathmore, nobly bearing the weight of this ordeal on his shoulders, doing what was necessary, staying cool in the face of disaster. Susan sometimes saw David in Strathmore. They had many of the same qualities-tenacity, dedication, intelligence. Sometimes Susan thought Strathmore would be lost without her; the purity of her love for cryptography seemed to be an emotional lifeline to Strathmore, lifting him from the sea of churning politics and reminding him of his early days as a code-breaker. Susan relied on Strathmore too; he was her shelter in a world of power-hungry men, nurturing her career, protecting her, and, as he often joked, making all her dreams come true. There was some truth to that, she thought. As unintentional as it may have been, the commander was the one who'd made the call that brought David Becker to the NSA that fateful afternoon. Her mind reeled back to him, and her eyes fell instinctively to the pull-slide beside her keyboard. There was a small fax taped there. The fax had been there for seven months. It was the only code Susan Fletcher had yet to break. It was from David. She read it for the five-hundredth time. PLEASE ACCEPT THIS HUMBLE FAX MY LOVE FOR YOU IS WITHOUT WAX. He'd sent it to her after a minor tiff. She'd begged him for months to tell her what it meant, but he had refused. Without wax. It was David's revenge. Susan had taught David a lot about code-breaking, and to keep him on his toes, she had taken to encoding all of her messages to him with some simple encryption scheme. Shopping lists, love notes-they were all encrypted. It was a game, and David had become quite a good cryptographer. Then he'd decided to return the favor. He'd started signing all his letters Ã¢â¬Å"Without wax, David.Ã¢â¬ Susan had over two dozen notes from David. They were all signed the same way. Without wax. Susan begged to know the hidden meaning, but David wasn't talking. Whenever she asked, he simply smiled and said, Ã¢â¬Å"You're the code-breaker.Ã¢â¬ The NSA's head cryptographer had tried everything-substitutions, cipher boxes, even anagrams. She'd run the letters Ã¢â¬Å"without waxÃ¢â¬ through her computer and asked for rearrangements of the letters into new phrases. All she'd gotten back was: taxi hut wow. It appeared Ensei Tankado was not the only one who could write unbreakable codes. Her thoughts were interrupted by the sound of the pneumatic doors hissing open. Strathmore strode in. Ã¢â¬Å"Susan, any word yet?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore saw Greg Hale and stopped short. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, good evening, Mr. Hale.Ã¢â¬ He frowned, his eyes narrowing. Ã¢â¬Å"On a Saturday, no less. To what do we owe the honor?Ã¢â¬ Hale smiled innocently. Ã¢â¬Å"Just making sure I pull my weight.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I see.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore grunted, apparently weighing his options. After a moment, it seemed he too decided not to rock Hale's boat. He turned coolly to Susan. Ã¢â¬Å"Ms. Fletcher, could I speak to you for a moment? Outside?Ã¢â¬ Susan hesitated. Ã¢â¬Å"AhÃ¢â¬ ¦ yes, sir.Ã¢â¬ She shot an uneasy glance at her monitor and then across the room at Greg Hale. Ã¢â¬Å"Just a minute.Ã¢â¬ With a few quick keystrokes, she pulled up a program called ScreenLock. It was a privacy utility. Every terminal in Node 3 was equipped with it. Because the terminals stayed on around the clock, ScreenLock enabled cryptographers to leave their stations and know that nobody would tamper with their files. Susan entered her five-character privacy code, and her screen went black. It would remain that way until she returned and typed the proper sequence. Then she slipped on her shoes and followed the commander out. Ã¢â¬Å"What the hell is he doing here?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore demanded as soon as he and Susan were outside Node 3. Ã¢â¬Å"His usual,Ã¢â¬ Susan replied. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore looked concerned. Ã¢â¬Å"Has he said anything about TRANSLTR?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. But if he accesses the Run-Monitor and sees it registering seventeen hours, he'll have something to say all right.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore considered it. Ã¢â¬Å"There's no reason he'd access it.Ã¢â¬ Susan eyed the commander. Ã¢â¬Å"You want to send him home?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. We'll let him be.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore glanced over at the Sys-Sec office. Ã¢â¬Å"Has Chartrukian left yet?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. I haven't seen him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Jesus.Ã¢â¬ Strathmore groaned. Ã¢â¬Å"This is a circus.Ã¢â¬ He ran a hand across the beard stubble that had darkened his face over the past thirty-six hours. Ã¢â¬Å"Any word yet on the tracer? I feel like I'm sitting on my hands up there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not yet. Any word from David?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"I asked him not to call me until he has the ring.Ã¢â¬ Susan looked surprised. Ã¢â¬Å"Why not? What if he needs help?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"I can't help him from here-he's on his own. Besides, I'd rather not talk on unsecured lines just in case someone's listening.Ã¢â¬ Susan's eyes widened in concern. Ã¢â¬Å"What's that supposed to mean?Ã¢â¬ Strathmore immediately looked apologetic. He gave her a reassuring smile. Ã¢â¬Å"David's fine. I'm just being careful.Ã¢â¬ Thirty feet away from their conversation, hidden behind the one-way glass of Node 3, Greg Hale stood at Susan's terminal. Her screen was black. Hale glanced out at the commander and Susan. Then he reached for his wallet. He extracted a small index card and read it. Double-checking that Strathmore and Susan were still talking, Hale carefully typed five keystrokes on Susan's keyboard. A second later her monitor sprang to life. Ã¢â¬Å"Bingo.Ã¢â¬ He chuckled. Stealing the Node 3 privacy codes had been simple. In Node 3, every terminal had an identical detachable keyboard. Hale had simply taken his keyboard home one night and installed a chip that kept a record of every keystroke made on it. Then he had come in early, swapped his modified keyboard for someone else's, and waited. At the end of the day, he switched back and viewed the data recorded by the chip. Even though there were millions of keystrokes to sort through, finding the access code was simple; the first thing a cryptographer did every morning was type the privacy code that unlocked his terminal. This, of course, made Hale's job effortless-the privacy code always appeared as the first five characters on the list. It was ironic, Hale thought as he gazed at Susan's monitor. He'd stolen the privacy codes just for kicks. He was happy now he'd done it; the program on Susan's screen looked significant. Hale puzzled over it for a moment. It was written in LIMBO-not one of his specialties. Just by looking at it, though, Hale could tell one thing for certain-this was not a diagnostic. He could make sense of only two words. But they were enough. TRACER SEARCHINGÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Tracer?Ã¢â¬ he said aloud. Ã¢â¬Å"Searching for what?Ã¢â¬ Hale felt suddenly uneasy. He sat a moment studying Susan's screen. Then he made his decision. Hale understood enough about the LIMBO programming language to know that it borrowed heavily from two other languages-C and Pascal-both of which he knew cold. Glancing up to check that Strathmore and Susan were still talking outside, Hale improvised. He entered a few modified Pascal commands and hit return. The tracer's status window responded exactly as he had hoped. TRACER ABORT? He quickly typed: YES ARE YOU SURE? Again he typed: YES After a moment the computer beeped. TRACER ABORTED Hale smiled. The terminal had just sent a message telling Susan's tracer to self-destruct prematurely. Whatever she was looking for would have to wait. Mindful to leave no evidence, Hale expertly navigated his way into her system activity log and deleted all the commands he'd just typed. Then he reentered Susan's privacy code. The monitor went black. When Susan Fletcher returned to Node 3, Greg Hale was seated quietly at his terminal.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Promotion plan for increasing attendance at a minor league baseball game - Essay Example Because of the existence of multiple number of minor league baseball games in the same country, the marketers for these baseball leagues often try to implement a series of promotion tactics so as to lure the fans of the baseball games. Some of the promotional tactics that are used by the marketers for increasing the popularity of the baseball games comprises of night time fireworks, concessions on fooding items. Also, some marketers focus on executing promotions by conducting three legged races as well as various other contests for children. Also, organizing of concerts, comedy, magic acts are performed to lure the interest of the sports fans for the minor league baseball games (Anderson, Ã¢â¬Å"Not So Minor AttractionsÃ¢â¬ ). However, to present a unique kind of promotional campaign in this case, focus has to be given to design a campaign which is different from the existing promotional clutter. The promotional idea that will be recommended in this case will be a mix of both online and offline medium. Selecting the Promotional Approach While designing the promotion for the league baseball games, the SMART objectives that were designed have to be considered. The SMART objectives focused on raising the level of popularity as well as the sale of merchandises from the gift shops.... Also, some marketers focus on executing promotions by conducting three legged races as well as various other contests for children. Also, organizing of concerts, comedy, magic acts are performed to lure the interest of the sports fans for the minor league baseball games (Anderson, Ã¢â¬Å"Not So Minor AttractionsÃ¢â¬ ). However, to present a unique kind of promotional campaign in this case, focus has to be given to design a campaign which is different from the existing promotional clutter. The promotional idea that will be recommended in this case will be a mix of both online and offline medium. Selecting the Promotional Approach While designing the promotion for the league baseball games, the SMART objectives that were designed have to be considered. The SMART objectives focused on raising the level of popularity as well as the sale of merchandises from the gift shops. Since the expected fans of the baseball games will be mostly young parents and kids who will fall in the category of Gen X and Gen Y category, hence to develop a connect with them, the online medium will be used. Promotion of the event will be carried out in the online networking sites by creating a Facebook Page and thereby providing updates about the latest happening for the minor baseball league games. Also, the Facebook Page can be used to conduct online contests targeted towards the young audience and thereby distributing rewards and freebies to the contest winners. This will help in boosting the interest and attendance rate for the games. Also, the traditional advertising medium can be used as a support process for increasing the awareness and interest for the baseball games of the minor league. For doing promotions using the traditional medium, the marketer can
Friday, September 27, 2019
Political and Economic Experience for the Puerto Rican - Essay Example Their migration to the U.S has had major impact to their growth since the 19th century including the strife to maintain their culture. Their relationship with U.S government has led to great economic growth and development through trade, cultural activities and sport. Other major activities in politics have had impacts on the society at large and have cemented the network politically, socially and economically. The country now faces major technological and international integration as a result of these ties which have led to good economic growth. Political advancements have had great impacts and the in terms of economic and political experiences which have modulated the trade and economic development. Politics have transformed the living standard of the citizen and given them a position of power. Politically, Puerto Ricans in the U.S began running for state elections and seats and promoting their own members for the parliamentary seat in the year 1937 (Carmen & Vazquez-Herna ndez 9). Long since very many have been advanced and much social standing has been enhanced. This has also seen a big advancement like educational institutions, sporting facilities, improved transport and improvement in the defense sector through funding. Political standings have seen the positive impacts of interrelations. The migrant to the U.S has led to both positive and negative consequences to those involved. The migrants gain control politically and the strong ones may dominate in the long run. Most of the political aspirants gain experience in the world of politics and the experiences that come with governance. They learn to exercise their rights politically and basing on the fair statutes some may venture to the civil sector to create awareness. On the other hand, these exercises may lead to danger and harassment by the opponents
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The importance of Coaching within Raising Employee Perfomance - Research Paper Example When there individuals within an organization that need to enhance their skills for better operations, coaching thus is done on them to improve their delivery potential as well as make those individuals more productive to the organization (Charness, 2014,pg.87). Coaching therefore will target areas such as skills that need to be developed or strengthened; the lapses that exist in work; behavior and performance output of individuals. When these weak areas are recognized within an organization, the employees are taken through coaching by the managers or supervisors depending on the organizations policy (Charness, 2014, pg.35). A case study that reveals the benefits of coaching can be drawn from the UK rail industry where up to 13 coaches were tasked with the responsibility of increasing the skills of customer service for about 350 people in their organization (customer hosts). As a tool to improve employees output, coaching has had other numerous benefits to UK rail industry including: nurturing and improving an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s talent; setting expectations about the employee and making the organization managers accountable; engaging leaders in organization activities; professional satisfaction; boost of employee morale; and overall improvement of the organizational goals. This report therefore aims to discuss coaching explaining its purposes; benefits; and challenges. Additionally, the report will give a brief conclusion on the topic of study. Coaching can be defined as process that enables an individual to learn and develop skills from a direction and advice provided by a seasoned expert or professional (Crane, & Patrick, 2014, pg.89). Additionally, coaching can be understood as a process that involves directing, training as well as instructing an individual or a group of persons to develop certain skills necessary to achieve some goal. Directions can be given through motivational talks while trainings offered through seminars and
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Should similar systems of free enterprise, would their most likely LONGEST TERM outcomes be forms of a permanent worker democracy of communism - Essay Example The free enterprise economy is characterized by monetary sovereignty, altruistic exchange, private chattels and choice of getting maximum profits in the business. People decide ways in which they earn and use their funds they get in the business. Most successful countries that have strong and stable economy apply free enterprise economy system, as it is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading economic structure. Consequently, should similar systems of free enterprise degenerate; I think that their longest term outcomes will be forms of a permanent worker democracy of communism. There are two factors to be noted before it becomes a realism Firstly, every person should be literate and exceptionally knowledgeable, since communism system does not need ignorant, selfish, and greedy individuals. It is established that communism works better among individuals who are aware of the benefits of an exemplary leadership and concerned with assisting the common individuals. Consequently, informed leaders who h ave the skills of leading a country to a successful economic progress can be good in ruling a communist country. Secondly, I think individuals ought to be satisfied with whatever they own instead of wanting to augment themselves; hence, larceny public wealth. Leaders are expected to reach a personal satisfaction that is immeasurable in order to make outstanding leadership. It is difficult for innumerable personalities, since it requires leaders to get satisfied with the positive impacts they put in when governing a country instead of what they gain. Leaders should be able to measure their level of happiness without considering or comparing their happiness with the happenings of the surrounding environment. People should learn to be contented with whatever they have, to achieve social maturity and work harder to ensure that favorable competition prevails through their efforts they put in work. It is
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Legal Profession - Personal Statement Example But people with a flair for the job, may not require it at all. "You are the final judge of your own psychological type" according to Isabel Briggs Myers-[website career planning.com-29-04-09]. A basic principle is that "humans are complex" [website careerplanning.com-29-04-09]. Another principle worth remembering is that the MBTI "does not stereotype people" [website careerplanning .com-29-04-09]. These indicate that while training may be useful, it has no universal applicability. Stature: A lawyer's profession is one of the best in the world. A lawyer occupies a high position in society. We can see that a large percentage of the world's celebrities like Prime Ministers, Presidents, Ambassadors etc. had their start as lawyers. A degree in law is the qualification for the job. I will acquire it. A lawyer can set up an independent practice or take up a salaried job. The income will be high, running into 5 or 6 digits. Lawyers have plenty of openings in banks, business corporations, industrial units etc as legal officers. Banks, Business Corporations like the Nokia, and Airlines are three specific fields which hire lawyers. I had a personal interview with a 26 year old lawyer. He was smart and alert, brimming with confidence and fearlessness. Soon after his joining, he shot up into the limelight by winning a couple of sensational cases. Now he is very popular and people from far away come to engage him.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Advertising and Pricing Strategies - Essay Example This feeling is as a result of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s price skimming strategy that excites late adopters who are able to get their expensive products at a bargain price. This not only creates good will for the company, but also increases their revenue. Moreover, late adopters increase its market share. According to Perreault, Cannon and McCarthy (2011), a price skimming strategy focuses on profit maximization by charging a high price for early adopters of a new product then reducing the price to attract thriftier consumers. Apple has adopted this strategy because it helps them to create an aura of prestige around their products while generating a lot of profits. Moreover, it allows them to reduce their prices to encourage consumers to buy. The purchase decision was informed by a number of factors. First, the affordability of the product. Second, the utility of the product. The iPhone 5c has a lot of features that add value to the consumer. Third, the uniqueness of the brand. Apple products have a beautiful design. Moreover, they are elite products because their high price discourages most people from buying. The research process involved a comparison of different mobile phone reviews online. In addition, conversations with friends and family members reinforced the decision to purchase an iPhone
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Tradeoff Analysis - Essay Example As the Baderman Island facilities manager, the main reparation task before me is to escape $10,000 loss per week due to the miserable condition of the Visitors Center roof. The only solution of which is the replacement of the roof. The architect has offered three options are here to be applied for the replacement: 1. The installation cost of Asphalt shingles is $20 per square foot is $20, so the total cost for 10,000 square foot roof is estimated to be $200,000 Asphalt shingles. It will take one week in the installation of the roof. It simply means that the installation period will cause $10,000 more loss due to not being visited by the clients. Hence, the total cost reaches $210,000 in case of installing of Asphalt shingles roof. In addition, the installation will remain valid for the next twenty years, and no cost will be required during these years. 2. In case of the installation of tiles, per square cost will be $50 per square foot, with total cost $500,000 for 10,000 square foot roof. In addition, it will take three weeks for the completion of installation process, which will cost $30,000 additional loss as it will remain closed for the visitors for the next three weeks. The aggregate cost will be $530,000, while the lifecycle is expected to be 40 years. 3. The architect has given the estimation of $35 per square foot for the installation of composite tiles with the total cost $350,000 for 10,000 square foot roof. Since it takes two weeks to install composite tiles, so additional $20,000 will also be included in the expenditures making the grand total of $370,000, and the expected lifecycle is 30 years. Hence, the installation cost of asphalt shingles is $160,000 lower than the composite tiles, while its installation cost is expected to be $320,000 lower than the installation of tiles on roof. Moreover, the installation cost of composite
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Morning in Nagrebcan by Manuel E. Arguilla Essay (1) It was sunrise at Nagrebcan. (2) The fine, bluish mist, low over the tobacco fields, was lifting and thinning moment by moment. A ragged strip of mist, pulled away by the morning breeze, had caught on the c umps of bamboo along the banks of the stream that flowed to one side of the barrio. (3) Before long the sun would top the Katayaghan hills, but as yet no people were around. In the grey shadow of the hills, the barrio was gradually awaking. Roosters crowed and strutted on the ground while hens hesitated on their perches among the branches of the camanchile trees. Stray goats nibbledÃ · the weeds on the sides of the road, and the bull carabaos tugged restively against their stakes. (4) In the early morning the puppies lay curled up together between their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s paws under the ladder of the house. Four puppies were all white like the mother. They had pink noses and pink eyelids and pink mouths. The skin between their toes and on the inside of their large, limp ears was pink. They had short sleek hair, for the mother licked them often. The fifth puppy lay across the mothers neck. On the puppys back was a big black spot like a saddle. The tips of its ears were black and so was a patch of hair on its chest. (5) The opening of the sawali door, its uneven bottom dragging noisily against the bamboo flooring, aroused the mother dog and she got up and stretched and shook herself, scattering dust and loose white hair. A rank doggy smell rose in the cool morning air. (6) She took a quick leap forward, clearing the puppies which had begun to whine about her, wanting to suckle. She trotted away and disappeared beyond the house of a neighbor. (7) The puppies sat back on their rumps, whining. After a little while they lay down and went back to sleep, the black-spotted puppy climbing on top of the Four. (8) Baldo stood at the threshold and rubbed his sleep-heavy eyes with his fists. He must have been about ten years old, small for his age, but compactly built, and he stood straight on his bony legs. He wore one of his fathers discarded cotton undershirts. (9) The boy descended the ladder, leaning heavily on the single bamboo railing that served as a banister. He sat on the lowest step of the ladder, yawning and rubbing his eyes one after the other. (10) Bending down, he reached between his legs for the black-spotted puppy. He held it to him, stroking its soft, warm body. (11) He blew on its nose. The puppy stuck out a small red tongue, lapping the air. It whined eagerly. Baldo laughed a low gurgle. (12) He rubbed his face against that of the dog. He said softly, My puppy. My puppy. He said it many times. (13) The puppy licked his ears, his cheeks. When it licked his mouth, Baldo straightened up, raised the puppy on a level with his eyes. (14) You are a foolish puppy, he said, laughing. Foolish, foolish, foolish, he said, rolling the puppy on his lap so that it howled. (15) The four other puppies awoke and came scrambling about Baldos legs. He put down the black-spotted puppy and ran to the narrow foot bridge of woven split-bamboo spanning the roadside ditch. (16) When it rained, water from the roadway flowed under the makeshift bridge, but it had not rained for a long time and the ground was dry and sandy. (17) Baldo sat on the bridge, digging his bare feet into the sand, feeling the cool particles escaping between his toes. He whistled a toneless whistle with a curious trilling to it produced by placing the tongue against the lower teeth and then curving it up and down. (18) The whistle excited the puppies; they ran to the boy as fast as their unsteady legs could carry them, barking choppy little barks. (19) Nana Elang, the mother of Baldo, now appeared in the doorway with handful of rice straw. She called Baldo and told him to get some live c Is from their neighbor. (20) Get two or three burning coals and bring them home on the rice straw, she said. Do not wave the straw in the wind. If you do, it will catch fire b ore you get home. (21) She watched him run toward Ka Ikaos house where already smoke was rising through the nipa roofing into the misty air. (22) One 0 two empty carromatas drawn by sleepy little ponies rattled along the pebbly street, bound for the railroad station. (23) Nana Elang must have been thirty, but she looked at least fifty. She was a thin, wispy woman, with bony hands and arms. She had scanty, with straight, graying hair which she gathered behind her head in a small, tight knot. It made her look thinner than ever. Her cheekbones seemed on the point of bursting through the dry, yellowish-brown skin. (24) Above a gray-checkered skirt, she wore a single wide-sleeved cotton blouse that ended below her flat breasts. Sometimes when she stooped or reached up for anything, a glimpse of the flesh at her waist showed in a dark, purplish band where the skirt had been tied so often. (25) She turned from the doorway into the small, untidy kitchen. (26) She washed the rice and put it in a pot which she placed on the cold stove. She made ready the other pot for the mess of vegetables and dried fish. (27) When Baldo came back with the rice straw and burning coals, she told him to start a fire in the stove, while she cut the ampalaya tendrils and sliced the eggplants. (28) When the fire finally flamed inside the clay stove, Baldos eyes were smarting from the smoke of the rice straw. (29) There is the fire, mother, he said. Is father awake already? (30) Nana Elang shook her head. Baldo went out slowly on tiptoe. (31) There were already many people going out. Several fishermen wearing coffee-colored shirts and trousers and hats made from the shell of white pumpkins passed by. The smoke of their home-made cigars floated behind them like shreds of the morning mist. (32) Women carrying big empty baskets were going to the tobacco fields. They walked fast, talking among themselves. Each woman had gathered the loose folds of her skirt in front and, twisting the end two or three times, passed it between her legs, pulling it up at the back, and slipping it inside her waist. The women seemed to be wearing trousers that reached only to their knees and flared at the thighs. (33) Day was quickly growing older. The east flamed redly and Baldo called to his mother, Look, mother, God also cooks his breakfast. (34) He went to play with the puppies. He sat on the bridge and took them on his lap one by one. He searched for fleas which he crushed between his thumbnails. (35) You, puppy. You, puppy, he murmured softly. (36) When he held the black-spotted puppy, he said, My puppy. My puppy. (37) Ambo, his seven-year old brother, awoke crying. Nana Elang could be heard patiently calling him to the kitchen. Later he came down with a ripe banana in his hand. (38) Ambo was almost as tall as his older brother and he had stout husky legs. Baldo often called him the son of an Igorot. The home-made cotton shirt he wore was variously stained. The pocket was torn, and it flipped down. He ate the banana without peeling it. (39) You foolish boy, remove the skin, Baldo said. I will not, Ambo said. (40) It is not your banana. He took a big bite and swallowed it with exaggerated relish. (41) But the skin is tart. It tastes bad. (42) You are not eating it, Ambo said. The rest of the banana vanished in his mouth. (43) He sat beside Baldo and both played with the puppies. (44) The mother dog had not yet returned and the puppies were becoming hungry and restless. They sniffed the hands of Ambo, licked his fingers. They tried to scramble up his breast to lick his mouth, but he brushed them down. (45) Baldo laughed. He held the black-spotted puppy closely, fondled it lovingly. (46) My puppy, he said. My puppy. (47) Ambo played with the other puppies, but he soon grew tired of them. He wanted the black-spotted one. He sidled close to Baldo and put out a hand to caress the puppy nestling contentedly in the crook of his brothers arm. (48) But Baldo struck the hand away. (49) Dont touch my puppy, he said. My puppy. (50) Ambo begged to be allowed to hold the black-spotted puppy. But Baldo said he would not let him hold the black-spotted puppy because he would not peel the banana. (51) Ambo then said that he would obey his older brother next time, for all time. (52) Baldo would not believe him; he refused to let him touch the puppy. (53) Ambo rose to his feet. He looked longingly at the black-spotted puppy in Baldos arms. (54) Suddenly he bent down and tried to snatch the puppy away. (55) But Baldo sent him sprawling in the dust with a deft push. (56) Ambo did not cry. He came up with a fistful of sand which he flung in his brothers face. But as he started to run away, Baldo thrust out his leg and tripped him. (57) In complete silence, Ambo slowly got up from the dust, getting to his feet with both hands full of sand which again he cast at his older brother. (58) Baldo put down the puppy and leaped upon Ambo. Seeing the black-spotted puppy waddling away, Ambo turned around and made a dive forÃ it. Baldo saw his intention in time and both fell on the puppy which began to howl loudly, struggling to get away. Baldo cursed Ambo and screamed at him as they grappled and rolled in the sand. (59) Ambo kicked and bit and scratched without a sound. He got hold of BaldoÃ¢â¬â¢s hair and tugged with all his might. (60) They rolled over and over and then Baldo was sitting on Ambos back, pummeling him with his fists. He accompanied every blow with a curse. (61) I hope you die, you little demon, he said between sobs, for he was crying and he could hardly see. (62) Ambo wriggled and struggled and tried to bite Baldos legs. Failing, he buried his face in the sand and howled lustily. (63) Nana Elang called out in her tired, patient voice that if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop their noise, theyÃ¢â¬â¢d wake up their father and heÃ¢â¬â¢d whip them (64) Baldo now left him and ran to the black-spotted puppy which he caught up in his arms, holding it against his throat. (65) Ambo followed, crying out threats and curses. He grabbed the tail of the puppy and jerked hard. (66) The puppy howled shrilly and Baldo let it go, but Ambo kept hold of the tail as the dog fell to the ground. (67) It turned around and snapped at the hand holding its tail. Its sharp little teeth sank into the fleshy edge of Ambos palm. (68) With a cry, Ambo snatched away his hand from the mouth of the enraged puppy. (69) At that moment the window of the house facing the street was pushedÃ violently open and the boys father, Tang Ciaco, looked out. (70) He saw the blood from the tooth marks on Ambos hand. He called out inarticulately and the two brothers looked up in surprise and fear. (71) Ambo hid his bitten hand behind him. (72) Baldo stopped to pick up the black-spotted puppy, but Tang Ciaco shouted hoarsely to him not to touch the dog. (73) At Tang Ciacos angry voice, the puppy had crouched back snarling, its pink lips drawn back, the hair on its back rising. (74) The dog has gone mad, the man cried, coming down hurriedly. (75) By the stove in the kitchen, he stopped to get a sizeable piece of firewood, throwing an angry look and a curse at Nana Elang for letting her sons play with the dogs. He removed a splinter or two, then hurried down the ladder, cursing in a loud angry voice. (76) Nana Elang ran to the doorway and stood there silently fingering her skirt. (77) Baldo and Ambo awaited the coming of their father with fear written on their faces. (78) Baldo hated his father as much as he feared him. He watched him now with half a mind to flee as Tang Ciaco approached with the piece of firewood held firmly in one hand. (79) He a big, gaunt man with thick bony wrists and stoop shoulders. A short-sleeved cotton shirt revealed his sinewy arms on which the blood-vessels stood out like roots. His short pants showed his bony-kneed, hard-muscled legs covered with black hair. (80) He was a carpenter. He had come home drunk the night before. He was not an habitual drunkard, but now and then he drank great quantities of basi and came home and beat his wife and children. (81) He would blame them for their hard life and poverty. You are a prostitute, he would roar at his wife, and as he beat his children, he would shout, I will kill you both, you bastards. (82) If Nana Elang ventured to remonstrate, he would beat them harder and curse her for being an interfering whore. (83) I am king in my house, he would say. (84) Now as he approached the two, Ambo cowered behind his elder brother. He held onto Baldos undershirt, keeping his wounded hand at his back, unable to remove his gaze from his fathers close-set, red-specked eyes. (85) The puppy with a yelp slunk between Baldos legs. Baldo looked at the dog, avoiding his fathers eyes. (86) Tang Ciaco roared at them to get away from the dog: Fools! Dont you see it is mad? (87) Baldo laid a hand on Ambo as they moved back hastily. (88) He wanted to tell his father it was not true, the dog was not mad, it was all Ambos fault, but his tongue refused to move. The puppy attempted to follow them, but Tang Ciaco caught it with a sweeping blow of the piece of firewood. The puppy was flung into the air. It rolled over once before it fell, howling weakly. (89) Again the chunk of firewood descended, Tang Ciaco grunting with the effort he put into the blow, and the puppy ceased to howl. It lay on its side, feebly moving its jaws from which dark blood oozed. (90) Once more Tang Ciaco raised his arm, but Baldo suddenly clung to it with both hands and begged him to stop. (91) Enough, father, enough. Dont beat it anymore, he entreated. Tears flowed down his upraised face. (92) Tang Ciaco shook him off with an oath. Baldo fell on his face in the dust. He did not rise, but cried and sobbed and tore his hair. The rays of the rising sun fell brightly upon him, turned to gold the dust that he raised with his kicking feet. (93) Tang Ciaco dealt the battered puppy another blow and at last it lay limpy still. He kicked it over and watched for a sign of life. The puppy did not move where it lay twisted on its side. (94) He turned his attention to Baldo. (95) Get up, he said, hoarsely, pushing the boy with his foot. (96) Baldo was deaf. He went on crying and kicking in the dust. (97) Tang Ciaco struck him with the piece of wood in his hand and again told him to get up. (98) Baldo writhed and cried harder, clasping his hands over the back of his head. (99) Tang Ciaco took hold of one of the boys arms and jerked him to his feet. Then he began to beat him, regardless of where the blows fell. (100) Baldo encircled his head with his loose arm and strove to free himself, running around his father, plunging backward, ducking and twisting. (101) Shameless son of a whore, Tang Ciaco roared. Stand still, Ill teach you to obey me. (102) He shortened his grip on the arm of Baldo and laid on his blows. (103) Baldo fell to his knees, screaming for mercy. He called on his mother to help him. (104) Nana Elang came down, but she hesitated at the foot of the ladder. (105) Ambo ran to her. (106) You too, Tang Ciaco cried, and struck at the fleeing Ambo. (107) The piece of firewood caught him behind the knees and he fell on his face. (108) Nana Elang ran to the fallen boy and picked him up, brushing his clothes with her hands to shake off the dust. (109) Tang Ciaco pushed Baldo toward her. (110) The boy tottered forward weakly, dazed and trembling. He had ceased to cry aloud, but he shook with hard, spasmodic sobs which he tried vainly to stop. (111) Here take your child, Tang Ciaco said, thickly. (112) He faced the curious students and neighbors who had gathered by the side of the road. He yelled at them to go away. He said it was none of their business if he killed his children. (113) They are mine, he shouted. I feed them and I can do anything I like with them. (114) The students ran hastily to school.The neighbors returned to their work. (115) Tang Ciaco went to the house, cursing in a loud voice. Passing the dead puppy, he picked it up by its hind legs and flung it away. (116) The black and white body soared through the sunlit air; fell among the tall corn behind the house. (117) Tang Ciaco, still cursing and grumbling, strode upstairs. He threw the chunk of firewood beside the stove. He squatted by the low table and began eating the breakfast his wife had prepared for him. (118) Nana Elang knelt by her children and dusted their clothes. (119) She passed her hand over the red welts on Baldo, but Baldo shook himself away. He was still trying to stop sobbing, wiping his tears away with his forearm. (120) Nana Elang put one arm around Ambo. She sucked the wound in his hand. She was crying silently. (121) When the mother of the puppies returned, she licked the remaining four by the small bridge of woven split bamboo. She lay down in the dust and suckled her young. She did not seem to miss the black-spotted puppy. (122) Afterward Baldo and Ambo searched among the tall corn for the body the dead puppy. (123) Tang Ciaco had gone to work and would not be back till nightfall. (124) In the house, Nana Elang was busy washing the breakfast dishes. Later she came down and fed the mother dog. (125) The two brothers were entirely hidden by the tall corn plants. As they moved about among the slender stalks, the corn-flowers shook agitatedly. Pollen scattered like gold dust in the sun, falling on theÃ fuzzyÃ · green leaves. (126) When they found the dead dog, they buried it in one corner of the field. Baldo dug the grove with a sharp-pointed stake. Ambo stood silently by, holding the dead puppy. When Baldo finished his work, he and his brother gently placed the puppy in the hole. (127) Then they covered the dog with soft earth and stamped on the grave until the disturbed ground was flat and hard again. (128) With difficulty they rolled a big stone on top of the grave. (129) Then Baldo wound an arm around the shoulders of Ambo and without a word they hurried up to the house. (130) The sun had risen high above the Katayaghan hills, and warm, golden sunlight filled Nagrebcan. The mist on the tobacco fields had completely dissolved.
Friday, September 20, 2019
19th and 20th Century Feminism Culture All throughout history women have been degraded and suppressed for not being a man. Starting in the roman days, women had to be reliant on the men and only them. Their husband was in control of them and what they did and if they werent married, they were under their fathers control. For instance, women were unable to teach due to the fact it gave them too much authority and leadership (Mountjoy 14). It was expected in the nineteenth century society that men were able to go to work and be able to socialize with others, while women were expected to watch the kids and make dinner. Throughout the 19th to the 20th century, women, as a group, fought for equality and the right to vote. They also wanted to have more laws about rape and abortion. Especially since sometimes in trials, men never get enough time in prison while women dont get enough closure. In the nineteenth century women right became more accounted for once they realized how males had much more choices than females. (Sailus). Literature was a major way that womens feelings and thoughts towards men were brought up. From then on women became more educated on the topic and women were able to grasp how they needed greater equality. This is when womens right activist started to share their opinions and used their voice as a way to connect with others. For example, in 1972 Mary Wollstonecraft published a book called, A Vindication on the Rights of Women. In this book she promoted the idea of sexual equality. Wollstonecraft inspired many others girl to become feminist. Feminist are people who believe in sexual equality, they could be women or men. Usually feminist are women mostly though. Some of the key feminist of the womens right movement are Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady (Mountjoy 46). Susan B. Anthony was one of the most famous woman involved in the womens right movement because she helped add the nineteenth amendment in the U.S constitution in August,26, 1920. The nineteenth amendment allowed any sex to have the right to vote without being denied by the United States or by any state. This amendment symbolled victory for women for the most part, but still things needed to be done (DeLuzio 93). Elizabeth Cady was another social activist that had a huge contribution to creating equal rights for women. She helped create the first womens right convention that was held in Seneca Fall, New York, in 1848. Cady also created the declaration of sentiments to inspire for womens suffrage (Mountjoy 42). Sociological perspective is a viewing of the behavior of groups in a systematic way (Thomas 4). Feminist can be looked at from a sociological perspective since you can look behind a common thought about this and see the hidden meaning. For example, people thought Feminist were stuck up girls who just wanted to be dramatic but when looked deeper into it, it is about women who want equality and to have the same rights as men. With this social perspective, it allowed more people to care about the topic and want to join into being a feminist. Sociological imagination is the ability to see the connection between the larger world and our personal lives (Thomas 5). Feminist can be seen by sociological imagination because in society women are thought to be not as smart and are less able to get jobs than men. This can be connected to someones personal life because every day a girl can say in school most teachers expect the boys to do better in a math test than a girl. This affected the world by people being able to relate to these situations and understanding how women felt. In chapter two we learn about ethnocentrism, which is the tendency to view ones own group or culture as superior to others (Thomas 35). The feminist in the nineteenth century demonstrate this by seeming more important than African Americans. During the nineteenth and twentieth century African Americans werent treated with respect and were thought of less than Caucasian people. Women acted as if they needed their rights more than African Americans, when in reality African Americans were treated worse. Although African Americans were having trouble, African American women still joined the feminist movement and protested equality with them (DeLuzio 29). Feminist also demonstrate ethnocentrism by making them seem better than men. With all of these protest, conventions and books being created, it made women seem as if men were horrible and didnt do anything for them. The power women were able to gain through this movement, allowed others to see how much better women were and that they wer ent getting credited and awarded. When women were acknowledged they were able to gain more freedom and rights, which changed the world (DeLuzio 133). A counterculture is a group that rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replace them with their own cultural pattern (Thomas 39). Feminist in the nineteenth century and twentieth century represent a counterculture because they reject norms and values of society. The group rejects the shared rules of conduct by taking actions in a situation and being the leader, when the usual norm was to lay back and let the men do everything (Mountjoy 14). For example, Carrie Chapman Catt took leadership into her own hands and created League Women voters, this promoted social welfare bills, protected legislative for women and eliminated discriminatory laws (DeLuzio 134).Feminist reject values by believing women sticking up for themselves were a good thing and letting men have more rights than them were bad. Back then, women sticking up for themselves was unusual and unheard of and wouldnt be taken seriously. For instance, creating confrontation and fighting back was thoug ht as not lady like but in the counterculture women saying things back was thought as empowering and heroic (Sailus). When Pauli Murray decided to speak up and use her voice to talk about how she was denied from Harvard University for being a girl, it expanded the meaning of freedom and justice for women but also surprised the world because most African American women wouldnt talk about that (DeLuzio 194). Cultural relativism is the belief that a group or culture should be judged by their own standards and not by others. Feminist behaved in the manner because of cultural relativism. They are justified because they were just looking to have rights and make people see gender relations. If they were judged by other standards, people would think that it was strange and stupid to expect equality. In a male dominated society, especially in different countries, they would look at this counterculture and be surprised. For instance, the Arapesh women were always given husband at a young age and then given at home jobs. Since this was the Arapesh tradition, people in America would judge Feminist because they want to have gender equality (Thomas 32). This is why cultural relativism is a good thing because women in the United States were able to earn equality without having to worry about being compared to other cultures. In my own opinion, I agree with my countercultures philosophy. I agree mostly because I am a female and I think women should have the same rights as men. I disagree on how useless women were treated back then. For example, when I learned women were never able to do certain careers because of men being worried women would be given leadership. I am actually very thankful for this group. Without them I wouldnt have been able to vote or get the education I am able to obtain now. I would have to stay at home and deal with cooking and taking care of kids. This counterculture allowed me to aspire to go into the engineering field because I realized I could do it, although most men overpopulate the engineering field. Work Cited DeLuzio, Crista. Womens Rights . ABC-CLIO, 2010. Mountjoy, Shane. The Womens Right Movement. New York City: Infobase Publishing, 2008. Sailus, Christopher. Study.com. n.d. 9 March 2017. Thomas, W. LaVerbe. Holt Sociology. Holt,Rineheart and Winston, 2003. textbook.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
It is unfortunate that many people within our society and worldwide suffers from the affects of alcohol addiction. There are many issues associated with this addiction and many times itÃ¢â¬â¢s not only the victim that deals with the addiction but also the people in close association with the individual. Alcohol addiction can afflict anyone and knows no limits of its damage that it can do to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life or the people in their lives. Most importantly are the ones whom seek help for their addiction as it becomes a lifelong healing period for them. It has become clear that constant consumption of alcohol leads to addiction. It has also become clearer with the laws and policies that have been drawn up to combat drunk drivers that it is not a normal thing to do anymore as was thought to be normal in the late 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 70Ã¢â¬â¢s. This is not normal behaviour and it becomes clearer as the laws for drinking and driving is enforced by law enforcement officers. It is a duty for addiction workers to help in the aid of these problems and its laws and policies that help in putting a stop to some of the problems that arise from this addiction. This research paper will help enable sociologists to determine what the ongoing effects have on an alcoholic and further provides information on the long-term effects that society has to deal with. The significance of alcoholism and sociology is the ability of sociologists to research and discover how human behaviour is affected on many aspects of its effects on a person. An alcoholic can be described as someone who is addicted to drinking alcoholic beverages in excess. What starts out as social drinking can lead to excessive drinking and the many problems associated with alcohol abuse and i... ...y therapy in the treatment of alcohol-related problems: A review of behavioural family therapy, family systems theraphy and treatment matching research. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, (17)3, 13-23. Latham, P.K., & Napier, T.L. (1992). Psychosocial consequences of alcohol misuse in the family of origin. The International Journal of the Addictions, 27, 1137-1158. Murray, Jane Lothian, Linden, Rick and Kendall, Diane. (2011). SOCIOLOGY IN OUR TIMES, Fifth Canadian Edition by Nelson Education Limited, Published by Thomson Wadsworth, USA. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (Office of Applied Studies). Treatment Episode Data Set(TEDS): Highlights-2003. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services, Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, 2003. Walsh, F. (1998). Strengthening family resilience. New York: Guilford.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
In the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Mayella Ewell misleads the constituents of Maycomb about Tom Robinson because she knew the people would not approve of her actions of advancing on a man of different color. This event vividly explains the consequential aftermath of one race having feelings for another in the times of the Great Depression, specifically a white woman having feelings for an african american. She was afraid of what the townspeople would do to her, which was the main reason Mayella lied to the town of Maycomb. MayellaÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions gave away that she was lying during the trial. When Mayella was called to the stage, she said to Atticus "I got somethin' to say an' then I ain't gonna say no more. That nigger yonder took advantage of me an' if you fine fancy gentlemen don't wanta do nothin' about it then you're all yellow stinkin' cowards, stinkin' cowards, the lot of you. Your fancy airs don't come to nothin'Ã¢â¬âyour ma'amin' and Miss Mayellerin' don't come to nothin', Mr. Finch-". If Mayella Ewell was really innocent, she wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been as dramatic as she was while pleading her case. Mayella most likely would have told the truth with no wavering emotions. When Mayella was called to the stand she did this, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËHim,Ã¢â¬â¢ she said, pointing at Atticus.Ã¢â¬ Mayella was afraid of Atticus during the trial because of the way he got her father, Bob Ewell, to give vital information to TomÃ¢â¬â¢s benefit. She would not have been afraid of Atticus if she hadnÃ¢â¬â ¢t known he could get the truth out of her, too. If Mayella had remained calm during the trial, she might have seemed a lot less guilty. Mayella Ewell did not admit to the truth because she was afraid of what the town would perceive of her actions. Atticus implied that... ...a white man harming a black man, the black man would be guilty of assaulting the white man. Thusly, there was little to no chance that the jury would believe anything Tom Robinson said. Mayella used the townÃ¢â¬â¢s racism to her advantage to get out of her sticky situation. In conclusion, Mayella Ewell lied to the citizens of Maycomb about Tom Robinson because she knew the people would not approve of her actions of advancing on a man of different color. She swore on the Bible to tell the truth, but failed to do so and told everyone Tom Robinson raped her. Even though Mayella clearly made that up and there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a substantial amount of evidence to prove Tom was guilty, he was still charged for raping Mayella because his skin color was different from hers. The moral of this event is to never judge someone by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
According to Newman, affirmative action is a Ã¢â¬Å"program designed to seek out members of minority groups for positions from which they had previously been excluded, thereby seeking to overcome some institutional racismÃ¢â¬ (Newman, 536). Affirmative action made its debut with a piece of legislature passed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1964 and continues to this day. However, the concept of affirmative action is a controversial issue that continues to be hotly debated. Affirmative action policies are passionately debated by everyone from educators and politicians to ordinary citizens, all who hold differing opinions on both the necessity and validity of the policies. There is no doubt affirmative action is an emotional topic and deals with the sensitive subjective of race, therefore peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions to it are going to be strongly influenced by their own race and person experiences. One group who may support affirmative action are educators. Especially, those who work with poorer minority students and see the obstacles they have to overcome in order to finally get ahead and attend college, unlike their parents. To these educators affirmative action may be seen as a sign of hope for bright, determined minorities. Politicians too may support affirmative action if it is in their political interest to do so. If a politician is running for office in an area with a large minority population that is not well off they would likely support affirmati ve action to gain the votes of the citizens. However, if a politician represented an area that is for the most part racist and unwilling to give opportunities to minorities, politicians will probably reject the idea of affirmative action. In the case of politicians it seems likely their decisions wo... ...uch as Ã¢â¬Å"socioeconomic status, first-generation college status, geographic residency,Ã¢â¬ or the hardships students have overcome (Ã¢â¬Å"UD.govÃ¢â¬ ). These factors while not race based would likely ensure a fair amount of minorities were represented. Until institutions and organizations in the United States can choose applicants without bias and minorities have overcome the socioeconomic disadvantages they face, it will be necessary to maintain some form of forced equality, which is what affirmative action provides. Works Cited "GUIDANCE ON THE VOLUNTARY USE OF RACE TO ACHIEVE DIVERSITY IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION." UD.gov. U.S. Department of Education, 02 Dec 2011. Web. . Newman, David M. Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life. 8 ed. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press, 2010. Print.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Controlling is the practice that managers use to ensure that the company plans and goals are being attained. By comparing report to each other areas that are working and succeeding are defined and the areas where problems are occurring can be addressed and corrected (Baker & Baker, 2011). A manager has four different, lets say teamsÃ¢â¬ that report to this manager. Controlling would be when team A, B, C, and D submit the teamsÃ¢â¬â¢ financial report to the manager. The manager would review all four teams to ensure the teams are meeting the financial goals. So, in this scenario Team A, B, and C is on target and meeting the goals. However, Team D has not met the goals. The manager needs to review the team DÃ¢â¬â¢s progress determine where the problem is, such as cutting cost, the resource allocation, operating procedure, or other issues. Without controlling the teams and reviewing progress, other area will suffer. Decision making Decision making is management making informed decisions based on all information that accomplishes the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals (Baker & Baker, 2011). The company is making a decision on purchasing electronic medical records. The financial reports will inform management of the financial status on the company and the amount of money they can budget for the purchase of this the EMR. Organizing Organizing is a term for companies to decide how to use resources for the best outcome for the company (Baker & Baker, 2011). A manager is given a certain amount of revenue and the manager decides where the money is allocated for the department to accomplish the goals set by the company. Planning To succeed, companies need corporate goals. Planning is identifying the goals and resources. Laying out the steps by using the resources to accomplish those goals (Baker & Baker, 2011). A manager has a specific project to install and to perform the primary function of the project. The manager works out a step by step plan from the beginning to the end of implementing the project until the project is complete and accomplishes the goal. Original records When a transaction is recorded into a journal or ledger this becomes the original records (Baker & Baker, 2011). A patient makes a payment of $100. This payment is entered into the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s file and payment history. This entry is an original record in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s income ledger. Reference: Baker, J. J., & Baker, R. W. (2011). Health Care Finance Basic Tools for Nonfinancial Managers (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Achievement goal theory: Ã¢â¬ËAn athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation should always be to aim to be the bestÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay
Ã¢â¬Å"Success and failure are not concrete events. They are psychological states consequent on the perception of reaching or not reaching goalsÃ¢â¬ (Maehr & Nicholls, 1980. p. 228). The quality of an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s sporting experience is shaped by the way in which success is defined, and by how capabilities are judged (Duda, 1993). Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) (Nicholls, 1984; 1989) outlines that people are motivated by the desire to fell competent. People can define competence and success in different ways, the main ones being ego and task orientations. Research is consistent in showing the motivational benefits of a task-orientation, either singly or in combination with an ego-orientation. In order to keep athletes involved in sport, success must mean being the best as well as task mastery and personal improvement (Duda, 1993). Drawing from past research, I will construct an essay to support the statement: Ã¢â¬ËAn athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation should always be to aim to be the bestÃ¢â¬â¢. I will firstly outline important tenants of AGT, in particular ego and task orientations, approach and avoidance goals, motivational climates, and TARGET guidelines. Secondly, I will use this information to provide a brief analysis of the motivational style that a coach of the Varsity rugby league team; Brent, performs, and the effects this style has on a particular 18-year-old athlete; Justin. Finally, I will describe specific theoretically based strategies that can be used by Brent, to adapt a more correct motivational atmosphere for Justin and his team. Coaches play an important role in determining the types of motivational orientations athletes perceive (Ames, 1992). Part 1: Theoretical Understanding. According to AGT (Nicholls, 1984, 1989), in achievement situations the goal of participants is to demonstrate competence or avoid demonstrating incompetence. AGT recognises at least two approaches athletes may adopt to judge their ability within a sporting context. A focus on comparing oneself to others (ego-orientated) or a focus on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own effort and improvement (task-orientated) Athletes, who are ego-orientated, perceive ability as limiting the effects of effort on performance (Nicholls, 1989). Here athletes show their high capacity of ability often at the expense of effort. Nicholls (1989) states that ego-orientated individuals judge their abilityÃ relative to others, and try to demonstrate superior ability or outperform others to be satisfied. Those who are highly task-orientated use cues such as levels of effort and task completion to assess their competence, in a self-reflective manner. Here the athlete is satisfied if they perform to a level that reflects how they have mastered a task or made personal improvements (Ames, 1992). Much research points to the advantage of being task-involved when participating in sport and other achievement-related activities (Ames, 1992; Duda, 1993, 2001). Positive outcomes include health, well-being, and social and performance-related factors. When athletes report being task-oriented, they persist longer at sporting tasks, they are more engaged with their trainings, and they use more effective cognitive processing strategies (tennis). In comparison, ego-oriented goals may lead to negative outcomes, such as the tendency to drop out of sport (Duda & Balaguer, 2007). Adaptive cognitive, affective, and behavioral patterns are characteristics of task-orientated athletes as well as for those who are ego-oriented but who have high perceived competence or ability. Maladaptive patters are predicted for ego-oriented individuals who have low perceived ability (Nicholls, 1989). Athletes become predisposed to task and ego orientations because of social factors in their sport (i.e. the coach), and these orientations will subsequently influence what goal preference an athlete will adopt in a specific situation (Duda & Balaguer, 2007). Elliot (1999) & Pintrich (2000) state that task and ego goals are each divided into approach and avoidance goals. In terms of task goals, task-approach oriented athletes are interested in achieving mastery of a task; in contrast, task-avoidance oriented athletes are interested in avoiding misunderstanding the task. In terms of ego goals, ego-approach oriented athletes are interested in demonstrating that they are more competent than other athletes (i.e., have more ability than others); in contrast, performance-avoidance oriented students are interested in avoiding appearing incompetent or stupid. It is important to note that athletes can hold multiple goals simultaneously; thus, it is possible for an athlete to be both task-approach oriented and ego-approach oriented; here, this athleteÃ truly wants to learn and master the material but is also concerned with appearing more competent than others. The nature of the goal state (levels of task and ego-orientation) that is activated in a specific sport situation will be determined by individual preference (goal orientation) as well as situational cues (motivational climate). According to Roberts (2001) conceptions of competence are determined by both dispositional and situational factors. Research acknowledges that both studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ individual characteristics and contextual influences affect the types of goals that students adopt in various learning environments. Studies indicate that the environments in which athletes learn influence their goal orientations in important ways (Dweck, 1986; Cury, Biddle, Famose, Goudas, & Sarrazin, 1996; Spray, 2000). Whether an athlete is more task- or ego-orientated in sport depends partly on the motivational climate created by coaches. This can also be of two types: a mastery or task-oriented motivational climate, and a competitive or ego-oriented motivational climate (Ames, 1992). In this regard, athletes who have stronger ego-goal orientations are more likely to perceive an ego-oriented sport climate, whereas those with a dominant task-orientation are more likely to perceive a task-oriented motivational climate. The instructional practices that are used in trainings have an impact on the types of goal orientations that athletes adopt (Ntoumanis & Biddle, 1999) In a task-oriented motivational climate, the coach emphasises cooperation, rewards playersÃ¢â¬â¢ effort, and ensures that everyone feels that they have clear and important roles to play on the team. When mistakes are made, the coach responds with information on how to correct the error. Here, coaches are more likely to produce athletes who are confident, coachable, willing to work hard for commonly agreed upon goals, and who enjoy their sport. In an Ego-orietated motivational climate, the coach emphasises rivalry between players, has a low tolerance for mistakes, and has favourites amongst the players. This environment has been related to athletes having greater performance anxiety and self-doubt and other behaviors which are counterproductive (Duda, & Balaguer, 2007; Ntoumanis & Biddle, 1999). In a task-orientated climate athletes experience greater enjoyment andÃ self-esteem, and reported less anxiety than in ego-involving climates. Athletes also report greater intrinsic motivation to play their sport when their coaches promote task involvement (Duda, & Balaguer, 2007; Ntoumanis & Biddle, 1999). Another critical area that defines the predominant motivational climate is the type of feedback given to athletes. The task-orientated climate will have responses that emphasize effort, improvement and skill mastery. The ego-involving climate will focus on the win-loss record and the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s ability. In a given context, if a coach talks about and truly focuses on mastery, improvement, and self-comparisons, then athletes are likely to adopt mastery goals, and to perceive a task goal structure during training. In contrast, if a coach constantly talks about skill levels, game scores, and who is doing the best (or the worst), then athletes are likely to adopt performance goals, and perceive a performance goal structure at training. An athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation should be to strive to be the best, but it is the perception of what is meant by Ã¢â¬Ëbeing the bestÃ¢â¬â¢ that the athlete must be concerned with. Coaches can play an important role in determining what athletes perceive as being the best It is therefore important to provide the right types of goals, in the right type of motivation climate. Epstein (1989) identified that the task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation, and time (TARGET) structures as influential factors that can determine the motivation climate. Epstein (1989) developed a taxonomy as a way of summarising and providing order to the various dimensions. Later, Ames (1992) adopted the TARGET acronym to summarise the structures that foster a mastery motivational climate in achievement situations, and consequently, display positive patterns of behaviours in athletes. The Task (T) dimension outlines the design of the learning activities. The Authority (A) dimension refers to the type and frequency of participation in the decision-making process. The dimension of Recognition (R) concerns the use of rewards to recognise progress and achievement. The Grouping (G) dimension regards the way in which athletes are divided into groups. TheÃ Evaluation (E) dimension involves the methods, standards, and criteria used to assess learning. The Time (T) dimension concerns the appropriateness of the time demands, the pace of instruction, and the time designated to complete tasks. This model can be used to identify and design a learning environment to help develop athletes perceived competence, enjoyment and intentions to participate. Conversely, Ego-orientated climates are created when athletes are not given varied tasks, the coach maintains authority, athletes are recoginised for their ability relative to others, homogeneous ability groups are used, evaluation is based on normative practices, and time for taskÃ¢â¬â¢s completion is inflexible (Duda & Balaguer, 2007). The mastery TARGET structures of task, grouping, and time have shown to have the greatest positive effect on peoples activity levels (Bowler, 2009). I will now use the discussed theoretical assumptions to provide a brief analysis of the motivational style that a coach Brent employs, and the effects this style has on an athlete; Justin. Part 2: Case Study; a Brief Analysis. Justin, an athlete in BrentÃ¢â¬â¢s team, is not enjoying league as much as he has in the past. Justin believes it is the coaching style and team environment, which has caused this change in motivation. Brent, a rookie coach, feels that his experience he has had as a player and from having been coached himself by a number of different coaches, will lead him to be a successful coach. It is evident from the case study and from the literature that BrentÃ¢â¬â¢s motivational style is negatively affecting JustinÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation, to the point that he seems certain to drop out of the sport completely. It would advantage Brent to be more task-orientated during his coaching; he currently employs an ego-orientated motivational style. His ego-orientated motivational climate can be categorised into the six dimensions of the TARGET taxonomy (Epstein, 1989). As a dimension of (T) Task: Brent does not emphasise individual challenge or active involvement during his fitness training and he dominates conversations by explaining what he thought went wrong. As a dimension of (A) Authority: Brent does not ask for input from the team regarding training drills and he does not give the players much of a chance to give their opinions. As a dimension of (R) Recognition: Athletes are recognised for their ability relative to others during fitness sessions rather than on effort as a perceived indicator of achievement. As a dimension of Grouping (G): homogeneous groups are evident when comparing new and existing team members; there is a sense of an Ã¢â¬Ëus and themÃ¢â¬â¢ atmosphere. As a dimension of Evaluation (E): the coach bases evaluation on fitness levels rather than effort, with no tools to develop the progression towards individual goals. and finally as a dimension of Time (T): the time the team has for task completion is inflexible, he expects quick progression of skills and fitness, as well as this, his sessions are all planned out in advance not allowing appropriate time demands. These ego-orientated practices that Brent employs, has created a motivational climate that is of a highly ego-orientated nature. This will influence the types of goal orientations that Justin adopts. The nature of the goal state will be determined by individual preference as well as the motivational climate. JustinÃ¢â¬â¢s motivational preference seems also to be highly ego-orientated. There is a high chance that this is a function of BrentÃ¢â¬â¢s ego-orientated instructional practices (motivational climate). Justin believes that in order to be successful he has to focus comparing himself with others either during fitness training or in higher recognition situations (i.e. aiming to make national representative squads). Justin displays performance anxiety and self-doubt. He does not feel like he has been given the opportunity to improve his league skills, and is worried about losing his place on the NZ rep team. Rather than striving for task-orientated goals, he is displaying an ego-goal orientation. Another effect of having an ego-goal orientation in sport is that Justin may perceive his ability by limiting the effects of effort during trainings. This lack of effort may be the reason for his lack of game time. Justin also displays an ego-avoidance orientation; here Justin is interested in avoiding appearing incompetent. He feels the only reason he is still playing is that he would feel guilty if he did not see the season through to the end. It is still early on in the season and although things do not seem to be going well for Justin, there is still hope yet. I will know describe specific strategies that i would encourage Brent to use to structure a moreÃ adaptive Ã¢â¬ËmotivationalÃ¢â¬â¢ sport environment for Justin Part 2: Case Study; Strategies for a more adaptive Ã¢â¬ËmotivationalÃ¢â¬â¢ sport environment. I believe Brent needs to reflect of the current coaching style and make changes to certain aspects, and if possible up-skill (i.e. a coaching course). In order to structure a more adaptive Ã¢â¬ËmotivationalÃ¢â¬â¢ sport environment for Justin and his team I would encourage Brent to design strategies to enhance task-involvement. Brent could employ the TARGET (Epstein, 1989) conceptualization, which represents the six structures of the achievement context to influence his athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation. These situational structures are assumed to be interdependent; one dimension can have direct implications on another dimension within the structure. I will now explain how Brent can structure a more adaptive motivational climate using the principals of the TARGET guidelines. As a dimension of task, Brent could provide the athletes with tools to help set self-referenced process and performance goals. For example, Brent may want to record the athletes initial and post fitness tests scores (i.e. Time it takes to run 3km) to provide athletes with individual times. Here the demand of the task is to emphasise individual challenge. This also recognises that individual ability can be a perceived indicator of achievement. As a dimension of authority, Brent could encourage input from his team by directing questions to athletes during review sessions (e.g. Ã¢â¬Å"how do you think we could improve on our performance from SaturdayÃ¢â¬â¢s gameÃ¢â¬ ) or getting individual athletes to call out the tackle count for a set of six tackles during defensive drills. This would be a great opportunity to nominate athletes like Justin, because it provides active involvement, while also building confidence and leadership skills. As a dimension of recognition, Brent could approach each player during the training session to talk through individual strategies, progress, and evaluation. This gives individual feedback that can advantage athletes like Justin. As a dimension of grouping, Brent could use differing grouping arrangements. For example arranging groups by which state of origin team they support, what province they are from, or which position they play (i.e. a forward). By sub-dividing groups under similar characteristics can support cooperative groupingÃ arrangements. As a dimension of evaluation, Brent could encourage athletes to bring a notebook to training as a way of recording their own personal improvements. Brent should also acknowledge mastery of tasks and congratulate good effort rather than comparing athletesÃ¢â¬â¢ skill levels against each other. As a dimension of timing, Brent needs to recognise that athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s progress through skills and fitness at different levels, a good coach must cater for all athletes by providing optimal timing constraints. This may involve being open to training drills progressing longer or shorter than what he had planned for. By employing Epstein (1989) conceptualization of the TARGET guidelines to foster a task-involving motivational climate, athletes will experience greater confidence, enjoyment and self-esteem. Athletes will also be more intrinsically motivation to play league. An athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation should always be to aim to be the best. It important that Brent can change his own perception of what he defines as the best from his current ego-involved definition to a more task-orientated definition. Creating this type of climate will hopefully help develop his own athletesÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of competence and enhance their sporting experience. In conclusion, this essay has outlined some specific theoretical assumptions of the achievement goal theory, and how these can be used to understand athletesÃ¢â¬â¢ behavioral patterns in sport. The coach-created motivational climate can play an important role in influencing athletesÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretation of their involvement in sport. Whether this influence is more positive or negative appears to depend on the degree to which the motivational atmosphere the coach establishes is more or less task-involving and ego-involving. I was able to assess BrentÃ¢â¬â¢s current motivational style using the TARGET taxonomy and its effects this style has on a athlete; Justin. Finally, I was also able to point out specific strategies of the TARGET taxonomy to help Brent create a more task-orientated motivational coaching climate. In doing so I have been able to support the statement that Ã¢â¬Ëan athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation should always be to aim to be the bestÃ¢â¬â¢, by acknowledging that Ã¢â¬ËbestÃ¢â¬â¢ can be defined from task-orientated goals. References Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals and the classroom motivational climate. In J. L. Meece & D. H. Schunck (Eds.). Student perceptions in the classroom (pp. 327-348). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Bowler, M. 2009. The influence of the TARGET motivational climate structures on pupil physical activity levels during year 9 athletics lessons. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Manchester, 2-5 September, 2009. Cury, F., Biddle, S., Famose, J., Goudas, M., Sarrazin, P. & Durand, M. (1996). Personal and situational factors influencing intrinsic motivatiuon of adolescent girls in school physical education: A structural modeling analysis, Educational Psychology, 16: 305-315. Duda, J. L. (1993) Goals: A social cognitive approach to the study of achievement motivation in sport. In R. N. Singer,M.Murphey and L. K. Tennant (eds.), Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology, pp. 421Ã¢â¬â436, New York: Macmillan. Duda, J. L. (2001). Achievement goal research in sport: Pushing the boundaries and clarifying some misunderstandings. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 129-182). Leeds: Human Kinetics. Duda, J. L., & Balaguer, I. (2007). The coach-created motivational climate. In S. Jowett & D. Lavalee (Eds.), Social psychology of sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Dweck, C.M. (2000). Predicting participation in non-compulsory physical education: Do goal perspectives matter?. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90: 1201-1215. Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169-189. Epstein, J. (1989). Family structures and student motivation: A developmental perspective. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.). Research on motivation in Education, Vol. 3. New York, Academic Press. Maehr, M. L. and Nicholls, J. G. (1980) Ã¢â¬ËCulture and achievement motivation: A second lookÃ¢â¬â¢. In N.Warren (ed.), Studies in Cross-cultural Psychology, Vol. II, pp. 221Ã¢â¬â267, New York: Academic Press. Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. London: Harvard University Press. Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 97, 328-346. Ntoumanis, N., & Biddle, S. J. H. (1999). A review of motivational climate in physical activity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(8), 643-665. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M.Ã Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, and Zeidner, M. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 451Ã¢â¬â502). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Roberts, G. C. (2001). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in physical activity: the influence of achievement goals on motivational process. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 1-50). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Spray, C.M. (2000). Predicting participation in non-compulsory physical education: Do goal perspectives matter? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90: 1207-1215.
In her book Ã¢â¬Å"How Jews Became White FolkÃ¢â¬ , Karen Brodkin examines the question of how Jews came to be regarded as White. She does this by first explaining how Jews were racially categorized prior to this time, and how they were considered to be inferior to the white race. Whiteness is and has always relied on continually renegotiated interpretations; that has more to do with ones social class rather than skin color. The argument that Brodkin presents is that the claim of whiteness are extended to certain races or ethnic groups at certain times, and that the past experiences of these groups cannot wipe away such indisputable social facts. Brodkin believes that the only way to successfully assimilate into the United States is by becoming Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ . What does it mean to be Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ ? The history of the United States clearly Ã¢â¬Å"shows changing notions of whiteness to be part of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s larger system of institutional racism.Ã¢â¬ (Brodkin, 1994). Being Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ has its advantages, just as it has its downfalls; I guess you can say it is a double edge sword. To be accepted into the dominant class one may have to shed part of their identity; yet, the rewards for doing this are not what one expects them to be. Yet, what is interesting is how the shift of Jews from being categorized from racial other, to not-quite-white, to white shows us how race in the United States has been constructed. She then goes on to insist that after WWII Jews had increasingly profited from the assortment of social policies set up to aid the rising middle class, like providing them with financial support to pay for their education and loans for houses from the Federal Housing Administration (Brodkin, 1994). She describes the G.I. Bill as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ the most massive affirmative action program in American historyÃ¢â¬ (Brodkin, 1994). What we need to take into consideration is that these social policies were not extended in the same proportion to African Americans and Latinos. Both groups were denied loans to buy their houses and when they were approved for a loan, they would be approved for lesser amounts; therefore restricting them from living amongst Ã¢â¬Å"whitesÃ¢â¬ . While Jews have in fact been successful in assimilating into the white America, others have not been successful. One example of this is LatinoÃ immigrants, not because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to but rather it comes from bad past experiences. They are expected to assimilate, but at the same time they are denied legal status and even worst they face the change of being deported at any time. In addition, what many fail to understand is the Latinos, especially Mexicans and African Americans have a much different and unique role within the United States, quite different than Jews or Italians will ever have. To begin, those of us with Latino blood in us have a history that in one way or another originates from this land, something that no white person can claim. As a conquered people we will always remain a threat to whites. African Americans on the other hand were brought by force from another continent only to become slave labor and although their roots are in Africa; this is the only land they have ever known. How Jews Became White Folk does an excellent job at making the reader reflect these unique roles that we have had to take with our society, I would have wanted for Brodkin to elaborate a little more on the definition of whiteness. We can only make that conclusion on our own. Works Cited: Karen, Brodkin (1994). How Jews Became White Folks & What That Says About Race in America. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Organizations today realize that employees are part of their competitive advantages. Along with effective business strategies and sufficient capital, investments for developing highly skilled human resources have been part of most companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ road towards success. In order to obtain this unique competitive advantage, organizational management must be able to give sufficient motivation to their employees (Creech, 1995).One of the considered approaches of management in motivating their employees is through reward system. Primarily, the goal of this paper is to provide an analysis of the aims of organisation in setting reward system. In addition, this will also provide discussions of some of the trends in reward practice and the emerging laws that affect employee rewards.Aims of Organisation for Setting Reward SystemIn Human Resource Management, the employee reward policy is intended to align employees with organizational strategy by providing incentives for employees to act in th e firm's interest and perform well over time. Expectancy theory carries a clear message that employees must feel confident that their effort will affect the rewards they receive. Perceptions of equity are therefore crucial in an employee's decision to remain and produce valuable work.Equity is a multidimensional construct, embracing external equity (the degree to which a firm pays employees the rate they would find in the external labour market), internal equity (the degree to which a firm differentiates pay between employees on the basis of performance in similar jobs), and individual equity (the degree to which employees are rewarded proportionately to their individual performance) (Dean and Snell, 1993).Because of the changing demands of performance on employees in high- velocity companies, perceptions of equity in its three forms may become confused, as job roles and job interdependence become more varied and flexible. Since employees would expect that as their job changes, so w ill their rewards, designing reward systems in high-velocity environments presents a major challenge to organizations. In high-velocity environments, a premium is placed on individuals who are able to operate in ambiguous circumstances and who are able to take advantage of loose job descriptions provided by their employers.Organizations in high-velocity environments are willing to pay proportionally higher salaries to individuals who have such skills. We would expect, therefore, that emphasis on individually equitable rewards as a means of recruiting and retaining highly capable employees would be required (Gomez-Mejia and Welbourne 1990; Snell and Dean 1992).Employee Rewards Policy amended by the Human Resource Management can be classified under three broad headings: performance-contingent rewards, which explicitly reward through performance outputs; job-contingent rewards, where pay is contingent on job classification; and person-contingent rewards, in which pay is dependent on th e competencies a person has (Dean & Snell, 1993). Because both output orientation and job Ã classification may be difficult to measure accurately in high-velocity conditions, the prospect of person-contingent rewards, which may encourage the values of learning, flexibility, and creativity, would seem to be best suited to fast-changing conditions.In addition, Employee Reward Policy can be one of the greatest foundations of control available to a company in its quest to increase organizational performance and effectiveness, yet remain one of the most underutilized and potentially complex tools for driving organizational performance. The importance and complexity of linking reward strategies to business goals in a systematic manner has been a recurrent argument in the study in this field, as has the importance and difficulty of linking rewards to the longer-term view (Hambrick & Snow, 1989). In describing the strongest level of linkage the emphasis has been placed on Lawler's (1990) description of reward processes which are capable of reinforcing the behaviours crucial to business strategy like long-term versus short-term, customer focus versus financial results.Statement EvaluationPeople do work for money, but they work even more for meaning in their lives. In fact they work to have fun. This statement can be evaluated using the physiological needs of people. Human beings have needs which can be classified as physiological, safety and security, social, esteem and status, and self-actualization. This means that although employees work because they want to ear incomes, there are still needs that should be fulfilled to ensure their contentment and happiness in what they are doing.Ã If any of the needs is unmet, or unsatisfied a person, the individual can be motivated if provided with an opportunity to satisfy the unmet need or needs. The most motivating opportunities are the most valued. The most valued opportunities are those designed to provide satisfaction o f the most intense unmet needs. What needs are most intense varies from individual to individual. One person's most dominant need may be the need to be happy (Romzek, 1989).In order to motivate and encourage the workers and employees to render their performances and to help them enjoy more of what they are doing, the employers should are giving recognition to those employees whose works is exemplary or that employee who has contributes to outstanding achievements and accomplishments of the mission and objectives of an organization as a whole.Ã Rewards and recognition go a long way to keeping employees motivated, satisfied, and committed. Management should recognize employees for both their progress toward and achievement of desired performance goals. It should show appreciation for small accomplishment as well as big ones.The recognition must be ongoing to reinforce employees' need to feel that they're doing a good job.Ã Moreover, the best forms of recognition typically have l ittle or no cost (Nelson, 1998). The statement just justifies the saying that people become more devoted to work when they feel that their environment likes them and appreciate the things they are doing.According to Skinner (1953), the reinforcement theory suggests the behaviors of the employees directly impact the outcome of their work or their performance. Thus, an employee with a positive behavior will bring about positive outcomes, whereas those with negative behaviors will lead to negative results. Thus, the positive behaviors of the employees should then be reinforced by their managers so as to generate more positive outcomes.Trends in Reward PracticeBeing able to recognise the needs for highly motivated individuals, human resource management has been able to develop different ways in rewarding their employees. The trends in reward practice include the broadbanding and performance-related pay and competency based pay or skill-based pay. This paper will focus on the broadbandin g and performance-related pay. Broadbanding is a manner of reducing the number of narrow grades in a certain pay structure into a smaller number of broader bands. This reward practice is based on the view that narrow ranges cannot reward employees who have reached their range maximum but who are still performing effective. The main goal of this reward practice is to provide greater flexibility to reward the acquisition of wider skills as well as competencies without need to promote the employees in each case or situation (Payment Practices, 2008).On the other hand, the performance-related pay is a common term for various approaches to warding or rewarding discretionary payments to employees on the basis of their contribution to the company. Among this common approach include the pay awards for successful meeting work objectives or for showing work-related competences or the integration of the two. Ã it can be said that each of this reward practice can be helpful for motivating and retaining skilful employees (DeWitt & Hamel, 2002).For rewards to be valued, the human resource management must see to it that the Employee Reward Policy includes the proper scheduling on when would be the most accurate time to give the rewards. Generally rewards received by an individual soon after accomplishment of a goal, or soon after attainment of a given targeted performance level, are the most valued rewards and the rewards that serve best to install a desire for further achievement or continued good performance, when the reward is tied to performance in time that reward is closely associated with the performance. It becomes an extension of the performance. It has real meaning because one can vividly see that it was received for performance.Laws that Affects Employee RewardsIf the employers are thinking of giving employees special rewards as incentives for having good attendance records, there are some legal and laws which prohibits them to do so. Ã For instance, the royal mail introduced a reward system for staff which did not take time off sick. Under this system, employees with full attendance records will be included into a prize draw to win Ford Focus cars or holiday packages. In the staff incentive, this system can be perceived as a workable reward to let the employees minimize or totally avoid their absences. However, this kind of system has some serious ramifications from certain employment law. This can be attributed to the employment discrimination law (Coopers, 2005).Herein, the management of Royal mail can be given discrimination charges for disability or age. The success of these claims depends on the specific situation of employees and their needs. This discrimination of age or disability may happen if, for instance, an employee had time off associated to the age and disability and this was not taken into consideration by the management under the reward system. Herein, there is an existing law that says that the failure of the managemen t to set-aside such employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s absence due to age or disability related reasons can be considered as less favourable treatment.Ã Hence, this would hinder the company to provide reward for those individual who have no absences for this would not be fair for other employees. In this regard, if the company would like to continue the reward system, they must have some list of exceptions in the reward system. In this regard, it is safer for employees to give bonuses and rewards based on the performance and not by the number of absences.ConclusionRegardless of the targeted employees, the organization today is attempting to become employers of choice.Ã In order to become one, the management of the organization shall create an Employee reward system where potential job candidates feel that it will be an accomplishment to earn a job with the organization, and that once they have a job, the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance will be rewarded.ReferenceCreech, R. (1995). Employee Moti vation. Management Quarterly, 36(2), 33+.DeWitt, G. and Hamel, G. (2002). alternative Compensation Plan. Legislative Finance Committee. Online available at http://leg.mt.gov/content/publications/fiscal/interim/financecmty_june2002/broadband_report.pdf Retrieve April 21, 2008.Dean, J.W.; Snell, S.A. (1993). Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËIntegrated Manufacturing and Job Design:The Moderating Effect of Organizational Inertia.Gomez-Mejia, L.R.; Welbourne, T.M. (1990). Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËThe Role of Compensation in The Human Resource Management Strategies of High Technology Firms'Ã¢â¬ , in M. A. Von Glinow and S. A. Mohrman (eds.), Managing Complexity in High Technology Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.Hambrick, D.C.; Snow, C.C. (1989). Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËStrategic Reward Systems'Ã¢â¬ , in C. C. Snow (ed.), Strategy, Organizational Design and Human Resource Management. Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press.Lawler, E.E. (1990). Strategic Pay. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Payment Practices (2008. Onli ne available http://pmf.haven gateway.org/remuneration_and_reward/pay_practices_in_the_uk. retrieve April 21, 2008.Romzek, B.S. (1989). Personal consequences of employee commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 649-661Nelson, B. (1998). The Care of the Un-Downsized. Public Management, Vol. 80, April 1998.Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Free Press.Snell, S.A. and Dean, J.W. (1992). Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËIntegrated Manufacturing and Human Resource Management: A Human Capital Perspective'Ã¢â¬ , Academy of Ã Ã Ã Management Journal, 35: 467-504.Coopers, RT (2005). Employment Law: Attendance Rewards Ã¢â¬â Legal Ramifications. Online available http://www.uedawn.com/article.cfm/id/57087. Retrieve April 21, 2008.